Koos Jansen
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Koos Jansen
Posted on 28 Sep 2016 by

How Constant Is Gold’s Purchasing Power?

An often-perceived analysis in the gold community is that gold is the constant in our global economy. But is this true? Yes and no. Allow me to share my observations. Although gold has an exceptionally constant nature, and we have yet to see another currency that can compete with gold’s constant nature, the reality is, that there is no exact constant in economics. In any market all goods, assets, currencies, etc. continuously fluctuate in value relative to each other due to ever changing supply and demand dynamics. Having said that, in this post we’ll examine gold’s constant nature by measuring its purchasing power in the short (weeks) medium (years) and long term (decades). Additionally, we’ll compare our findings to fiat’s nature.

We will find that when gold is officially recognized as the center of a monetary system – throughout history there have been several forms of gold standards – gold is approximately constant in the short, medium and long term. Since the gold standard has been abandoned, the metal has become less constant in the short and medium term, but has remained impressively constant in the long term. 

In turn, fiat can have periods of being constant in the short term, but will always lose value in the medium term and evaporate in the long term. Thereby, due to fiat’s fragile nature and the current stress in global finance, there are also risks fiat can significantly devalue overnight. Hence, gold is highly suitable to secure one’s purchasing power.

When examining the value of gold we have to measure it in terms of goods and services. In this day and age one might forget the end goal of any participant in the economy is goods and services. All else traded in our vast financial system is merely a means to an end. All sorts of money, but also stocks, bonds, credit default swaps, options, futures, etc., have no use-value for humans as we can’t eat, drink or wear them. Only goods and services we can truly use (for more information regarding use-value please read my post The Concept Of Money.) Therefor, to measure the stability of gold’s value we have to compute the amount of goods and services gold can buy.

For the sake of simplicity, we’ll use publicly available Consumer Price Index (CPI) and Wholesale Price Index (WPI) data to measure the value of goods and services.

Gold’s Purchasing Power In The Short And Medium Term

On occasion we can read gold commentators stating that when the price of gold rises or falls in the short term, it’s actually fiat that is falling or rising. As, according to this analysis gold is the constant. Let’s test if this analysis is accurate. In the week from January 4 until January 9, 2016, the price of gold in British pounds surged 5.9 % from £23,096 pound per Kg to £24,469 per Kg. We can be quite sure that the price of goods and services in the UK remained flat during this period. As a consequence, in this example gold could buy 5.9 % more goods and services at the end of the week, whilst sterling could buy exactly the same amount of goods and services all week long. So, in this particular example, what was more constant? It was sterling. The reason is that currently the international monetary standard is fiat.

Graph created with BullionStar Charts.

Moving on to the medium term. In the chart below I’ve plotted the purchasing power index of gold versus the British pound, based on CPI data and the gold price, from July 2010 until June 2016.


Over this period we can observe that the British pound was more constant than gold in the short term, but it’s purchasing power has been declining in the medium term due to the inherent inflationary policies by the central bank of the UK. Gold’s purchasing power has been volatile in the short and medium term, but in this case has remained its purchasing power over the shown period. Though, it should be clear that if I would’ve adjusted the period gold’s purchasing power could’ve shown an increase or decrease.

Gold’s Purchasing Power in the Long Term

To get the best understanding of his subject, let us zoom out and have a look at gold and the pound’s purchasing power since 1500. The following chart is conceived by Nick Laird from GCRU, based on data collected by himself and Roy Jastram. The chart is perhaps more difficult to interpret than the previous one. To be clear, we can see 3 index lines:

  • The red line reflects gold’s purchasing power index (1930 = 100)
  • The blue line reflects the price of gold index, denominated in British pounds (1930 =100). Note, until 1914 the blue line was mostly straight which shows fixed parities between sterling and gold.
  • The green line reflects the wholesale (/goods) price index, denominated in British pounds (1930 = 100)

As you can see, if the price of gold (blue) transcends wholesale prices (green), as a consequence gold’s purchasing power (red) is escalated – and vice versa.

Courtesy Nick Laird, from GCRU. Note the scale is logarithmic.

Clearly the red line has remained roughly flat, around 100, for hundreds of years! This shows gold’s remarkable constant nature. Note, since the gold standard has been gradually dismantled (1914) gold’s purchasing power became more volatile but remained robust in the long term.

Furthermore, we can see that prior to 1914 wholesale prices were also fairly constant but this is due to the fact sterling was tied to gold during this era. Since the gold standard was abandoned step-by-step from 1914 onwards, the blue and the green line have skyrocketed, evaporating the purchasing power of sterling. Since 1971 the British pound has lost over 93 % of its purchasing power – in 1975 inflation topped 20 %.

We can conclude, while there is no exact constant in economics, the stability of gold’s purchasing power is unprecedented. Not only on a gold standard the metal shows it’s constant nature, but also off the gold standard gold’s purchasing power is remarkably constant, albeit more volatile in the short term.

For the future, if the current fiat international monetary system will breach its limits and has to be re-anchored to gold, I expect gold to become more constant in both the short and medium term when providing a center pillar in finance.

Koos Jansen
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  • TJ

    There is a video online that explains the value of Gold:

    About 3/4 way into the video a gentleman explains that 1500 years ago One Dinar (Gold coin) bought two head of goat and today One Dinar STILL buys two head of goat!

    • Koos Jansen

      There are many anecdotal stories that gold’s purchasing power is also (more or less) constant over thousands of years. For example, in ancient Rome 1 troy ounce of gold could buy a handmade gown, and nowadays 1 troy ounce of gold can buy a handmade suit. Or so the story goes. This might be true, but it’s hard to test as handmade suits these days vary in price from, say, £500 to £5000 British pounds, and I wouldn’t be surprised if prices for clothes varied likewise in ancient Rome.

      Thereby, gold or any other commodity’s purchasing power is very difficult to measure over thousands of years, because people consumed completely different goods and services in ancient times and most goods required more intense labor to manufacture. Composing a consumer price index for the year 70 AD to compare to our current price index is difficult. But let’s pick one good to see what gold could buy in 70 AD versus now: grain.

      Early September 2016 archeologist found an ancient gold coin (an aureus) bearing the image of the Roman Emperor Nero near Jerusalem. http://publicrelations.uncc.edu/news-events/news-releases/rare-roman-gold-coin-found-mount-zion-archaeological-dig In the press release by Shimon Gibson, co-director of the excavation, it’s stated the coin dates from 70 AD. Over email I asked Gibson what the fine gold content of the coin is, as coins were often debased in the Roman Empire. My email was replied by historian and numismatist David Jacobson that told me the coin is 24 carat (>99 % fine) and weighs 8 grams.

      Next was to figure out how much grain this coin could buy 1,900 years ago. From Money And Prices In The Early Roman Empire, by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Economics https://www.bullionstar.com/blogs/koos-jansen/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/moneypricesinear00kess.pdf, we can read that Nero intervened in the Mediterranean grain market setting the price of 1 modius at 3 HS, which equaled 3 sestertii (page 6). As 1 modius equaled 6.67 Kg of grain and 3 sestertii equaled 3 % of 1 aureus, the price of 6.67 Kg of grain was roughly 0.24 grams of gold.

      Therefor, in 70 AD the price of 136 metric tonnes of grain was 4,894 Kg of gold. Why did I pick 136 tonnes as a measure? Because currently wheat (grain) is traded on the CME per 5,000 bushels that equal 136 metric tonnes.

      Today’s price of 5,000 bushels of grain (136 metric tonnes) on the CME is $400 USD, which equals to 0.0094 Kg of gold. Meaning, the purchasing power of gold in terms of grain has increased tremendously over 1,900 years. Naturally, this is caused by free market principles like trade, the division of labor, technological advancement and scale enlargement.

      Just another angle on the subject. In the end, stable money is a ‘chimera’. http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2016-08-23/chimera-stable-money But gold is the best currency as store of value for the foreseeable future.

      • Koos Jansen
      • Casey Phyle

        Very good and helpful article, but stable money is not a chimera. Grain becoming so much cheaper due to mechanized MASS production techniques says nothing about the value of gold. Suits off the rack also became cheaper, but not as much as grain. But a good handmade suit is still about an ounce of gold, because mass production is not possible, although they use sewing machines now. Price stability or fluctuation of individual items and their demand and supply tells the story of those items, not the medium of exchange. When cars became popular, perfectly good horse and buggies with high value a few years earlier, suddenly became cheap because of low demand. It doesn’t mean gold’s purchasing power increased.
        The most important aspect of stable (real) money is that its purchasing power is not diluted by counterfeit paper coupons that proclaim to be money. 100% honest money is the most stable money of all, which allows price comparison over long time spans, something we don’t have today.

      • anandsr

        Actually gold’s value is tied to the saving potential of people. Which inturn is tied to people’s ability to produce in excess of their consumption. Production efficiency is tied to technology. Technology includes transportation, food growing technology, basically anything that allows people to produce more. So as technology grows, Gold should grow more expensive.

        The only difference today is that gold is not seen as a saving vehicle. It is seen as a commodity. So compared to the times of Nero, Gold is much cheaper.

  • Rusty Brown in Canada

    “…but will always loose value in the medium term…”

    Doesn’t anybody know the difference
    between “lose” and “loose” any more?

    • Koos Jansen

      Thanks. I’ll never forget

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