Tag Archives: silver coins

Customer Order Number 100,000 at BullionStar

As part of its continued growth and success, BullionStar has recently fulfilled its order number: 100,000. To mark this significant milestone, BullionStar issued a 2.5 gram PAMP Gold Bar to the lucky BullionStar customer in question. The customer order was placed by Mr. Ito from Japan, who was on holiday recently in Singapore with his wife when he visited BullionStar's shop and showroom in central Singapore.

Mr. Ito said he was delighted with the PAMP gold bar prize and commented that he was very lucky on what was his first visit to BullionStar. He also returned the following day to make further purchases. Mr. Ito also liked the easy to locate BullionStar showroom, the competitive bullion prices, and the fact that the many bullion display cases make comparisons easy when selecting products.

BullionStar COO, Mr Luke Chua, presents a PAMP gold bar to Mr. Ito of Japan who placed order number 100,000 with BullionStar.

Established in 2012

This latest milestone is one of a continuing series of notable milestones for BullionStar since its establishment in Singapore 6 years ago. During this time BullionStar has gone from strength to strength and is now firmly established as the best bullion dealer in Singapore and the Asian region, as evidenced by BullionStar recently winning Bullion Directory's bullion dealer of the year award, as well as one of the most recognised bullion dealers internationally with customers from over 100 countries around the world.

Upon establishment in 2012, BullionStar's offices were initially located in the Marina Bay Financial Centre in the downtown Central Business District (CBD) of Singapore. Prior to 2012, BullionStar's founders were already familiar with the bullion dealer sector having set up several bullion dealers such as the Swedish company Liberty Silver AB. 

BullionStar's launch in Singapore in 2012 came as the Singaporean Government introduced a Goods and Services Tax (GST) exemption on transactions in investment precious metals (IPM). The GST exemption on IPM means that any time customers purchase qualifying bullion bars and bullion coins from BullionStar, the prices paid are free of GST, since there is no sales tax to pay. Other compelling reasons for establishing a bullion and storage operation in Singapore included the fact that Singapore is one of the safest countries in the world and has a stable jurisdiction, a strong rule of law, no reporting requirements on any bullion transactions, and a government which supports the growth and development of the bullion industry.

BullionStar's philosophy as a leading bullion dealer is grounded in innovation, internationalization, and constant evolution, both in-store and on-line. In January 2013, BullionStar launched its fully-transactional online trading platform, allowing customers around the world to buy and sell precious metals bars and coins at the click of a button on the BullionStar.com website.

In July 2014, BullionStar opened its current shop, showroom and integrated vault in central Singapore at 45 New Bridge Road, adjacent to both Clarke Quay MRT, and Singapore's Central Business District (CBD), as well as less than minutes walk from Singapore's Chinatown. This spacious showroom, with over 20 display cases, allows customers to browse and purchase a huge variety of gold bars, silver bars, gold coins and silver coins from the world's leading precious metals mints and refineries.

With BullionStar's secure precious metals vault integrated into the shop and showroom, customer purchase orders for precious metals can be immediately dispatched in the shop, and customers can also view and audit their precious metals holdings held in storage in the vault.

The Widest Range of Precious Metals Products

BullionStar now stocks one of the widest ranges of precious metals bullion products in the world, sourced from all of the world's leading precious metals mints and refineries, with over 600 different products across 10 product categories. These products include gold bullion coins and silver bullion coins from leading national mints such as the Royal Canadian Mint, US Mint, Perth Mint, Royal Mint and Austrian Mint, coins such as Gold and Silver Maple Leafs, Gold and Silver Eagles, and Gold and Silver Kangaroos. BullionStar's wide range of gold bars and silver bars is sourced from prestigious precious metals refineries such as Heraeus of Germany, PAMP and Argor-Heraeus of Switzerland, and from national mints such as the Perth Mint and the Royal Canadian Mint.

Gold Kilobars
PAMP Gold Kilobars available from BullionStar

In 2015, BullionStar also launched it's now very popular BullionStar branded gold bar and silver bar range. These products, the BullionStar 100 gram Gold Bar, produced by Argor-Heraeus of Switzerland, and the BullionStar 1kg Silver Bar, produced by Heraeus of Germany, can be traded without any spread between the buy price and the sell price.

As well as the comprehensive range of gold, silver and platinum bullion bars and coins, BullionStar also stocks a wide selection of gold and silver collectible and numismatic coins, a range of gold bullion jewelry, and a wide array of coin related products for storing and correctly handling and displaying your precious metals coins and bars.

Secure Storage in one of the Safest Countries in the World

BullionStar provides full service operations in all aspects of bullion sales, storage and other services. Opening a BullionStar account can be undertaken in a matter of minutes, and purchasing bullion either in the shop and showroom or online on the BullionStar website is a simple and intuitive process. Customers purchasing precious metals bars or coins can opt to pick up their purchases in person, have their products delivered to their address, or have their precious metals stored in BullionStar's secure vault facility which is integrated into the shop and showroom premises.

BullionStar's secure precious metals storage solution goes far beyond just storage of precious metals as it provides full online control allowing customers to buy, sell, physically withdraw or physically audit their bullion at any time. With Bullionstar's Vault Storage, customers can generate vault certificates online, view pictures of stored bullion, generate a live audit report of metal that they hold in storage, and view certificates evidencing vault insurance.

Metal grams held in vault storage through the BullionStar Savings Programs (BSP) can also be converted into either gold bars, silver bars or platinum bars, and can then either be held in storage or withdrawn and delivered.

Consistently Profitable and Strong Revenue Growth

Although the precious metals markets are at time opaque and closed to transparent information flow, BullionStar pursues a policy of transparency and openness as regards its operations, financial results and investor relations. BullionStar publishes highlights of its annual performance on its website with full commentary and infographic analysis. Customers therefore have visibility around BullionStar's revenues and product mix and can be confident about the company's financial standing and stability.

It's notable that BullionStar has grown revenues strongly in every financial year of operations. BullionStar's financial year (FY) runs to 30 June each year. In FY 2014, BullionStar recorded revenues of SGD 44.1 million. For FY 2015, revenues grew 43.8% to SGD 63.4 million. Revenues then almost doubled year-on-year  in FY 2016, rising to SGD 129.2. For the latest financial year, FY 2017, BullionStar recorded revenues of SGD 174.7 million, which was 35.2% higher than FY 2016.

This very strong and solid revenue growth means that BullionStar revenues have more than quadruped between FY 2014 and FY 2017, growing by a staggering 422% over that time. This revenue growth is a testament to strong and loyal customer order growth and underpins the growth and stability of BullionStar's operations over the period since its inception.

Order Number: 100,000 

Recognition, Media Interest, and Research and Analysis

In another sign of BullionStar's continued growth and recognition, this year BullionStar won the inaugural award of "Bullion Dealer of the Year" Rest of World category in The Bullion Directory's annual bullion awards. These awards are recognised and valued throughout the global bullion industry, and BullionStar secured its victory after nomination and public voting against many bullion dealers from across the globe.

Since its establishment, BullionStar's precious metals articles, blogs, research and infographics analysing the gold and silver markets have become well-known and highly-regarded around the world, with blogs and analysis from precious metals analysts such as Ronan Manly and Koos Jansen, and guest posts from renowned bloggers such as JP Koning. BullionStar aims to continue to lead the way in original precious metals documentation, views and commentary, and has developed sections of the BullionStar website including the educational Gold University and the topical in-house 'BullionStar Blogs' series of articles. BullionStar was also at the forefront in publishing original analysis about important gold markets such as the Chinese Gold Market, and stylish visual infographics on such topics as the London Gold Market.

BullionStar's articles and analysis are regular picked up and distributed on many other websites across the world, both by websites within the gold space and by more general financial and investment websites. BullionStar articles are also regularly translated into other languages and have been featured on sites as diverse as French, German, Spanish, Russian and Chinese language websites.

BullionStar is regularly quoted in the major financial media for views and commentary about the precious metals markets, and has been cited and quoted by such publications and websites as Reuters, Bloomberg, the Wall Street Journal, the Guardian, RT.com, Sputnik News,  Straits Times of Singapore, and CityWire Asia. BullionStar staff and analysts have also featured on Channel News Asia and Channel 8 News in Singapore, as well as Real Vision TV, and German TV network DAF. BullionStar also continues to produce its own series of video interviews which feature prominent members of the global precious metals markets such as legendary US investor Jim Rogers or prominent Canadian gold market entrepreneur Eric Sprott.

As well as a strong international customer base, BullionStar places particular emphasis on being international in outlook, and at times presents at events internationally such as FreedomFest in Las Vegas and attends precious metals events and exhibitions, such as the International Money Fair in Berlin. As one of the largest retail bullion dealers in Singapore, BullionStar now also contributes to assisting precious metals consultancies such as Thomson Reuters GFMS in gauging retail investment gold and silver demand in the Singaporean bullion market.

Payment Mechanisms Include Cryptocurrencies BTC, ETH, LTC and BCH

Payment mechanisms are also another area in which BullionStar aims to provide greater customer choice and continued innovation. As well as facilitating payments for precious metals purchases funded by bank transfer, NETS and Cheque, BullionStar also accepts 6 leading national cash currencies, namely the Singapore Dollar, US Dollar, Euro, Japanese Yen, Australian Dollar and Swedish Yen, and also four of the leading cryptocurrencies.

BullionStar began accepting Bitcoin as a payment method for precious metals in May 2014 and was one of the first bullion dealers worldwide to do so. In another first, Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash and Litecoin have just been added to the list of leading cryptocurrencies which can be used to purchase precious metals at BullionStar, and with this move, BullionStar is one of the first bullion dealers worldwide to accept payment in each of BTC, ETH, BCH and LTC. Customers selling bullion to BullionStar can also opt to receive proceeds of sales in either Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash, Litecoin or Bitcoin.

In September 2015, with the introduction of a Stored Value Facility, BullionStar began offering customers the ability to keep funds on account in their BullionStar accounts in a similar way to a bank account. The facility also means that funding precious metals purchases can be undertaken instantly without needing to transfer funds in, and proceeds from precious metals sales can be kept on account until next needed.

As well as being able to purchase a wide variety of investment precious metals, BullionStar customers can also sell precious metals coins and bars, such as gold, to BullionStar. This can either be precious metal which customers hold in storage in BullionStar's secure vault and wish to sell, or else bars and coins which customers send to BullionStar or drop-in in person in the Singapore shop and showroom. Additionally, through the Gold Buyers brand launched by BullionStar in August 2013, BullionStar offers competitive prices for gold jewelry and precious metals scrap.

Having been awarded a Bullion Dealer of the Year award in 2018 via public voting in the Bullion Directory annual awards, and with strong revenue growth in every financial year since inception, BullionStar's milestone of order number 100,000 is again testament to its loyal and growing customer base both in Singapore and the Asian region, as well as across the precious metals community worldwide.

BullionStar adds Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash, and Litecoin as Payment Options and Currencies

BullionStar is pleased to announce that it has added Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash and Litecoin as transactional currencies for both buy and sell orders on the BullionStar website.

Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash & Litecoin are now accepted as payment options and currenciesMany BullionStar customers are already be familiar with using Bitcoin when buying and selling gold, silver and platinum bars and coins, as BullionStar has been accepting Bitcoin as a form of payment since May 2014. BullionStar was one of the first bullion dealers worldwide to offer customers the ability to buy and sell physical precious metals using Bitcoin. Now with the addition of Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash and Litecoin, BullionStar is again one of the first bullion dealers in the world to offer customers the ability to transact in these other leading cryptocurrencies for both buy and sell orders.

With the addition of these three additional cryptocurrencies, BullionStar customers can now buy and sell physical gold bars, gold coins, silver bars, silver coins, platinum bars and platinum coins using Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), Bitcoin Cash (BTC) and Litecoin (LTC), and by using any of six traditional currencies, namely Singapore Dollars, US Dollars, Euro, Australian Dollars, Japanese Yen, and Swedish Krona.

BullionStar constantly aims to add innovations to its product and service offerings, and the addition of Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash and Litecoin comes after careful analysis and following customer feedback. The addition of Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash and Litecoin now gives BullionStar customers extra choice when buying physical precious metals using cryptocurrencies, and allows for faster cryptocurrency transaction confirmation times.

Settle Bullion Orders in Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash & Litecoin

To pay using a cryptocurrency, select the preferred cryptocurrency in the "Currency" drop-down box at the top right hand section of the BullionStar hompage. Upon selection, all prices in the product listings will be displayed in terms of your selected cryptocurrency.

Select to pay in Bitcoin Cash, Ethereum and Litecoin

To purchase precious metals on the BullionStar website, you simply add the desired items to your shopping cart, go to the checkout and place your order.  If you have selected a cryptocurrency as currency, the checkout payment option will default to the selected cryptocurrency as well.

Upon placing your order, the order confirmation page and order confirmation e-mail will detail the cryptocurrency address to which you must initiate your payment within 20 minutes.

BullionStar will update you with a payment confirmation e-mail and an SMS text message as soon as we have received and processed your payment.

Likewise, for customers selling precious metals to BullionStar, proceeds can now be received in Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash and Litecoin as well as in Bitcoin.

Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ethereum & Litcoin as Currency

On the BullionStar website, all product prices for gold bars, silver bars, gold coins, silver coins, BullionStar Savings Program (BSP) and other precious metals products can now be displayed in Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash and Litecoin as well as in Bitcoin.

2.5 gram PAMP Gold Bar denominated in Bitcoins

Customers can also view spot prices, portfolio values and account history directly denominated in the newly added cryptocurrencies. For example, if you select 'Litecoin' from the Currency drop-down box on the top right of the BullionStar homepage, the spot prices and charts on the right hand frame for gold, silver, platinum and palladium are then displayed in terms of Litecoin (LTC) values. When logged in to your BullionStar account, your vault balance and cash balance will also be displayed in LTC if the Litecoin currency option has been selected.

BullionStar Charts

Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash and Litecoin have also been added as currencies within BullionStar Charts.

BullionStar Charts is a comprehensive charting facility which provides the ability to create price charts for precious metals, currencies, commodities, stock indexes, individual stocks (equities) and also in terms of the prices of BullionStar products.

BullionStar's charting functionality allow any two prices to be selected. For example, on the charting page select 'Precious Metals - Gold' then select 'Currency - Bitcoin Cash' to view a price chart of the gold price in terms of Bitcoin Cash.

Gold Price in Bitcoin Cash

Why Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash and Litecoin?

BullionStar has added Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash and Litecoin as transactional currencies  alongside Bitcoin because each of these three cryptocurrencies is widely-known and widely-used, and each of these cryptocurrencies is now firmly established in the marketplace.

Since its commercial launch in 2015, the Ethereum blockchain platform and its Ether coin have become a dominant force in the cryptocurrency space, and as well as transaction processing, Ethereum also supports smart contract functionality and the development of other cryptocurrency platforms.

Bitcoin Cash emerged in early August 2017 as a hard fork when it was split off from the Bitcoin blockchain. Bitcoin Cash has a larger blocksize than Bitcoin and facilitates higher transaction rates than Bitcoin which generally translates to faster payments and confirmations. In the 9 months since its launch, Bitcoin Cash has seen large-scale adoption by merchants and is now a stable and expanding competitor to Bitcoin.

The Litecoin platform and its coin, launched in 2011, are also based on the Bitcoin blockchain design, and Litecoin is now well established and known for its high-speed transfers rates and short confirmation times.

In terms of cryptocurrency market capitalization (market cap) or total outstanding market value of each coin, Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash and Litecoin have among the highest values of all crypto coins next to Bitcoin, and the global cryptocurrency trading market values the infrastructure of these cryptocoin networks, and most importantly, given that exchanges are forward-looking pricing mechanisms, the crypto currency market is signalling confidence in the longer term future prospects of these four cryptocurrencies.

Trade Directly between Cryptocurrencies and Precious Metals

With the ability to buy and sell precious metals using Bitcoin, Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash and Litecoin, BullionStar customers can now trade directly between investment precious metals and cryptocurrencies without having to first convert to fiat currencies. Traders can also now take profits from these cryptocurrencies and directly buy precious metals using their Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash, Litecoin and Bitcoin.

Trading between Ethereum and bullion for example, you can now buy gold bullion bars and gold bullion coins through BullionStar using Ethereum and hold these investment grade bars and coins in BullionStar's vault. All you have to do is transfer Ethereum from your Ether wallet or crypto exchange account wallet to the Ethereum address as indicated on the order confirmation from BullionStar. The same applies for Bitcoin Cash, Litecoin and Bitcoin.

Then in the future If you want to sell these gold bars and gold coins and take the proceeds in Ethereum, you just sell the precious metals for Ethereum and have the Ether transferred to your personal Ether wallet or crypto exchange account wallet. There is no need to first convert the Etheruem to US dollars to buy your chosen gold bar and coin products. Thus the intermediate step of converting the main crypto currencies to fiat currencies, such as US dollars is redundant.

Types of Gold Standards

This blog post is a guest post on BullionStar's Blog by the renowned blogger JP Koning who will be writing about monetary economics, central banking and gold. BullionStar does not endorse or oppose the opinions presented but encourage a healthy debate. 

People often throw out the phrase "gold standard" into conversation, but it's worth keeping in mind that there have been several iterations of the gold standard over the course of history. This article describes each type of gold standard using historical examples for clarity.

1. The Gold Coin Standard, or Specie Standard

-Bimetallic Coin Systems-

Medieval coinage systems were typically bimetallic, relying on both gold and silver. To ensure the realm was well-supplied with coins, the monarch maintained a network of mints. Mints in the medieval times operated very differently than they do now. According to the principles of free coinage, access to these mints was available to anyone. By bringing their stash of raw precious metals to the mint, members of the public could ask the mint master to turn it into a specified number of coins, albeit for a fee.

English gold noble, half noble, quarter noble, silver groat, and silver penny (source)

To ensure that a variety of large and small transactions could be made by the public, the mint typically produced a range of small and large coin denominations. In England's case, by the 1500s it was issuing pennies, farthings (1/4 pennies), groats (4 pennies), testoons (12 pennies), half crowns (30 pennies), gold nobles (100 pennies), and more.

Minting low denomination coins like farthings and pennies out of gold was generally not a feasible option because the resulting coin would be tiny and easily lost. Twinning gold with a large amount of base metals like copper might have resulted in a larger and more manageable low-denomination gold coin, but then it would be susceptible to counterfeiting. As for high denomination silver coins, they would be large and bulky. Thus bimetallism amounted to a sensible sharing of the monetary load by both gold and silver coins.

-Accidental Monometallic Gold Coin Systems-

Bimetallic standards sometimes careened off course and became what are known as monometallic standards, with either gold or silver dominating. Thus emerged the first true gold standards, albeit entirely by accident. The mechanism underlying this muddling into monometallism was rooted in the fixed price between the two metals as enforced by the monarchs' mints.

To illustrate how this fixed price worked, consider that in August 1464 anyone could bring raw silver to the London Mint and have it minted into English pennies that contained 0.72 grams of silver. The mint would also turn raw gold into English nobles which contained 6.69 grams of gold. Since law stipulated that a noble was worth 100 pennies, that meant that the mint effectively valued a fixed amount of gold at 11 times the same amount of silver. (I get this data from John Munro [pdf]).

Gold guinea, 1664, which replaced the British unite coin

When the mint's chosen gold-to-silver ratio diverged too far from the global market ratio of gold-to-silver, then one of the two metals would begin to be ejected from the domestic monetary system. The reason for this is that a divergence effectively meant that the monarch was undervaluing one metal and overvaluing the other, and since no one who owned gold (or silver) coins wanted their property to be less than its true worth, the undervalued metal would be taken off the market.

For instance, if the mint was undervaluing silver, then anyone who purchased £1000 worth of raw silver and brought it to the mint for conversion into coins would get less purchasing power than if they had bought £1000 worth of gold and bought it to the mint. So the flow of silver to the mints would grind to a halt. Furthermore, any high quality silver coin already in circulation would be sent overseas in order to take advantage of the true gold-to-silver ratio. At this point a gold standard had emerged.

England stumbled onto a monometallic gold standard in the 18th century after having operated on a bimetallic basis for centuries. The gold-to-silver ratio used by the mint in the later 1600s and early 1700s undervalued silver and overvalued gold, so England's silver coins were steadily being shipped to the continent, causing silver coin shortages. Isaac Newton, the famous physicist who was appointed Master of the Mint in 1699, counseled the government to bring the ratio in line with the market. But when he finally moved to fix the problem in 1717, he undershot the amount of adjustment necessary, so that silver remained undervalued and the export of silver coins continued. Thus England was pushed onto a gold standard.

-The Hybrid Circulation of Coins and Paper Money-

By the 17th century, banknotes had joined coins in circulation. Paper money was originally convertible into a fixed amount of coins, issuers holding enough reserves in their vaults to ensure that ready convertibility was possible. A banknote is far easier to carry and handle than a coin, and since the public generally trusted the issuers of these notes, gold coins were pushed out of circulation and into bank vaults or non-monetary uses like jewellery. By the 1800s, it was rare to see a gold coin circulating in England.

Even as banknotes came to dominate, the British standard effectively remained a gold coin standard. Since a banknote was convertible into a fixed amount of coin, the note's purchasing power was regulated by the value of the coin itself. If there was any divergence between the two, say notes became more valuable than underlying coins, than arbitrageurs would push them back into line by buying coins for 99p and converting them into £1, earning 1 penny in risk-free profits.

The Bank of England's first 5 pound note, 1793

Substituting out metal with paper resulted in a cheaper payments system. Adam Smith was one of the earlier writers to comment on this, describing gold and silver coins as a highway that "carries to market all the grass and corn of the country." Bank-provided paper money was a more superior sort of thoroughfare, in Smith's words a "waggon-way through the air." The replacement of gold by paper money allowed the nation to convert barren highways - its metallic coinage - into goods pastures and cornfields, thus increasing the annual produce of the country.

2. The Gold Bullion Standard

If gold coins weren't used much in trade, might it be possible to cease minting them altogether yet remain on a version of the gold standard? This was the idea behind the gold bullion standard, first conceived by the famous English economist David Ricardo in early 1816 and eventually adopted in Britain some one hundred years later, in the aftermath of WWI. Under a bullion standard, an issuer of paper money promised to redeem its banknotes not with gold coins, or specie, but for a given amount of raw bullion.

At the same time, the mint ceased to allow free coinage of gold, effectively closing itself to the public. Existing gold coins were called in and demonetized. The mint now focused its resources on providing the government with low denomination token coins for use as small change. The value of token coins wasn't regulated by the metal inside of them. After all, a token coin with the face value of £1 might contain just a few cents worth of silver, copper or nickel. Rather, a £1 token circulated at its face value of £1 because the monetary (or fiscal) authority promised to buy those tokens up at their face value.

The adoption of a gold bullion standard resulted in a reduction in the costs of running the payments system. By pushing gold coins entirely out of circulation and replacing them with a combination of token coins and paper money, gold was conserved and could be put towards better uses. It was one step forward towards Adam Smith's waggon-way through the air.

3. The Gold Exchange Standard

A gold exchange standard takes the principle of gold conservation even further. Where the shift onto a gold bullion standard meant that any institution that issued paper money was now obligated to redeem their notes with raw bullion rather than coins, under a gold exchange standard these same issuers could no longer redeem their notes with raw bullion but were required to offer notes of a second-party issuer that was itself on a gold coin or gold bullion standard.

A number of nations adopted this sort of standard in the 1800s and early 1900s, including the Philippines and India. But perhaps the most famous example was the Bretton Woods system that dominated after WWII up until 1971. Under the Bretton Woods system, the U.S. Treasury promised to redeem its notes directly for gold. Most other nations in turn agreed to redeem their notes with a fixed quantity of U.S. Dollars. So while French Francs and Japanese Yen and Canadian Dollars weren't directly redeemable in gold, they were indirectly convertible.

4. A Partially Convertible, or Limping Gold Bullion Standard

Limping standards originally emerged when bimetallic coin standards were adjusted in such a way that the mints continued to allow free coinage of one of the metals, say gold, but ceased to freely coin the other, say silver. The silver coins were not removed, however, and continued to circulate along with gold coins, the silver coinage "limping on" so to say.

But we are more interested in the limping standard's more modern incarnation, a partially-convertible gold bullion standard. Rather than allowing everyone the ability to redeem paper banknotes for gold, a central bank (or any other issuer) imposed conditions on who could convert their banknotes. In 1934, for instance, the U.S. ceased allowing private individuals and businesses to convert their notes into gold, limiting this feature to foreign governments and other large government-sponsored entities.

Evolution of the promises on a Federal Reserve banknote (source)

Partially-convertible systems are more convenient for issuers to maintain since they reduce the infrastructure costs involved in maintaining universal convertibility. We see this same principle applied to modern-day Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs), for instance. Although ETF units are convertible into an underlying instrument (say the S&P 500 or gold), only a few select authorized participants have permission to invoke this convertibility option. As long as these authorized participants are motivated by profits, the value of the ETF units will never diverge very far from the value of the underlying instruments. If ETF providers were required to allow everyone to redeem their units, they would have to build out and maintain the requisite infrastructure, the resulting costs pushing up fees.

Likewise, partially-convertible gold bullion standards such as the one that the U.S. ran from 1934 to 1971 could, in principal, lever the financial expertise of a few authorized participants to achieve the same fixedness to gold as a regular gold bullion standard or an old-fashioned gold coin standard, but at far less cost to society. Complicating matters in the U.S.'s case was the fact that only foreign governments could convert dollar banknotes into gold, and these governments were not as efficient as profit-minded ETF authorized participants in policing the link between gold and dollars.

In Summary...

There have been a number of different gold standards over the last thousand or so years. Each iteration brought with it a reduced role for the monetary metals, the resulting reduction in storage and handling costs and the diversion of gold to better uses being a net gain to society.

At the same time, even though gold has had a smaller role to play, the purchasing power of the nation's monetary units throughout this evolution continued to be tethered to the yellow metal rather than being dictated by some more arbitrary force. Put differently, from one version of the gold standard to the next, society benefited from the price stability afforded by a link to gold while being liberated from some of the metal's inconvenient physical burdens.

Degussa Singapore Closing its Bullion Shop

Just 2 years after opening its first precious metals store in Asia, on Orchard Road in Singapore, German company Degussa GoldHandel has now surprisingly announced the imminent closure of this store.

According to the Degussa Singapore website:

Degussa Singapore will cease its retail operation at 22 Orchard on the 31 October 2017.

A Singapore branch of Degussa was opened by German company Degussa GoldHandel in October 2015 as part of its international expansion strategy, wherein it saw Singapore as a location that it regarded “as having a high growth potential for Degussa.” Degussa Goldhandel is a shortened version of Degussa Sonne / Mond Goldhandel GmbH, the full name of the German corporate parent.

Degussa operates in Singapore as “Degussa Precious Metals Asia Pte Ltd”, and is known as Degussa Singapore. Degussa Singapore had offered Degussa branded precious metals bars, a range of precious metals coins and collectibles, and storage facilities in the form of safety deposit boxes and other secure storage facilities.

Degussa GoldHandel also operates 10 bullion product stores in Germany as well as branches in Switzerland (Zurich and Geneva) and Spain (Madrid). Degussa GoldHandel also fully owns London bullion dealer Sharps Pixley in central London.

Degussa’s exit from Singapore so soon after committing to the Singaporean and wider Asian market is surprising, but may be related to its loss-making financial position. For the full year ended 31 December 2016, Degussa Precious Metal Asia Pte Ltd registered a net loss of SGD 2.8 million on revenues of SGD 59 million. At the same time, Degussa Singapore’s total liabilities exceeded total assets by SGD 4.35 million. This followed its first full financial year which ran from its date of incorporation on 20 November 2014 to 31 December 2015, a period in which Degussa Singapore made a net loss of SGD 2.05 million.

Although Degussa Singapore’s 2017 financial year results are yet to be published, it’s possible that continued financial losses at Degussa Singapore during 2017 were influential in the parent company’s decision to close its Singapore branch. Degussa Precious Metals Asia Pte Ltd (Degussa Singapore) is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Degussa Sonne/Mond Goldhandel AG, incorporated in the Canton of Zug in Switzerland, which in turn is owned by Clair AG, a holding company also incorporated in the Canton of Zug in Switzerland.

Orchard Road
Orchard Road, Singapore

Degussa Customers

Existing Degussa Singapore customers who may be concerned about where in Singapore to purchase their bullion products in future will be interested in learning that BullionStar’s precious metals store and showroom in central Singapore offers a full range of investment grade bullion bars and coins from the world’s most prestigious precious metals refineries and mints. BullionStar also buys all forms of investment grade bullion bars and bullion coins from the public, including Degussa branded precious metals bars.

Degussa Singapore customers who currently use Degussa’s safety deposit boxes or offsite storage facilities in Singapore to store their precious metals may also be interested in now considering BullionStar’s secure vaulting service as a future alternative for continued storage of their precious metals within the Singapore jurisdiction.

BullionStar's Financial Strength

In Singapore, BullionStar (BullionStar Pte Ltd) remains in a very strong financial position, and the company continues to grow strongly in terms of revenues, customer base and corporate presence. For the financial year ending 30 June 2017 (FY 2017), BullionStar recorded sales revenues totaling SGD 186.2 million, which was a 38.7% increase over corresponding revenues of SGD 134.2 million in FY 2016. BullionStar has also been profitable since inception.

BullionStar operates its precious metals shop, showroom and vault in central Singapore at 45 New Bridge Road, a convenient location adjacent to Singapore's Central Business District (CBD) and next to Clarke Quay MRT Station. BullionStar also operates a sophisticated online transactional platform and now has customers from 101 countries around the world.

Bullion Product Range and Depth

One of the peculiarities of the Degussa Singapore bullion bar range was that it only offered a limited selection of gold, silver and platinum bars, all of which were branded with the Degussa logo.

In contrast, BullionStar offers a full range / very wide selection of investment grade gold bars from the world’s most prestigious LBMA accredited refineries and mints including Swiss PAMP, Heraeus in Germany, the Perth Mint, and the Royal Canadian Mint, a full range of investment grade silver bars from leading refineries including Heraeus, PAMP, and the Royal Canadian Mint, and investment grade platinum bars from such well-known refineries as Heraeus in Germany and Valcambi in Switzerland.

In addition, customers can purchase BullionStar’s own branded 100 gram gold bars (produced by Argor-Heraeus in Switzerland), and 1 kilogram silver bars (fabricated by Heraeus in Germany). These BullionStar gold bars and silver bars have no spread between the buy and sell price.

BullionStar also stocks a very extensive precious metals coin range spanning investment grade gold coins, silver coins, and platinum coins from the world’s major mints including the Royal Canadian Mint, Royal Mint, Perth Mint, US Mint, and Austrian Mint among others.

Nearly all precious metals bars and coins in the BullionStar bullion product range are exempt from Singapore’s Goods & Services Tax (GST) since they qualify for GST exemption under the Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore (IRAS) exemptions on Investment Precious Metals (IPMs).

BullionStar also stocks a very wide range of precious metals coins and gifts in the form of numismatics, collectibles, and gold bullion jewellery.

BullionStar's Online Store

Degussa Singapore online store users will also be interested to know that BullionStar operates a sophisticated online transactional platform for buying and selling precious metals online.

This platform transparently quotes bullion product prices in Singapore Dollars, Euros, US Dollars, and Bitcoin. Opening an online account with BullionStar is a short and simple process. and payment can be made in SGD, EUR, USD and Bitcoin. Payment mechanisms are flexible, including bank transfer, cash, NETS (in Singapore Dollars), and cheque, and of course, Bitcoin. For each product on the BullionStar website, the product's price premium compared to the world gold price is displayed, as well as the product's spread between buy and sell price.

Precious metals purchased online on the BullionStar site can be delivered to a customer's home address, picked up at the BullionStar store, or else stored in BullionStar's secure vault storage facility, using the BullionStar "My Vault" storage option. As always, customers in Singapore can walk into the BullionStar shop and showroom and buy investment precious metals bars and coins, and also sell precious metals bars and coins and scrap gold to BullionStar.

New Bridge Road, Singapore
New Bridge Road, Singapore

BullionStar's Secure Storage Vault

Degussa Singapore had offered its customers safety deposit boxes facilities on site at its 22 Orchard Road location in Singapore, as well as other offsite storage facilities in Singapore.

A primary motivation for storing physical precious metals in Singapore is safety and security. There is a strong rule of law in Singapore and virtually no crime. There are strong property rights in the Singapore jurisdiction, and no reporting requirements on buying, selling, or storing precious metals. Additionally, there are no sales taxes or GST on transacting in investment grade precious metals in Singapore, nor are there any capital gains taxes. All of this means that investors currently storing their bullion in Singapore should continue to do so, and not need to face the prospect of having to have their bullion transferred for storage outside Singapore.

Customers of Degussa Singapore who currently avail of a safe deposit box at Degussa in which to store their precious metals may be interested in now availing of BullionStar's secure storage vaulting service which utilises a high security vault integrated into BullionStar's New Bridge Road facility in downtown Singapore.

All customer bullion bars and coins stored in BullionStar's secure vault are held in allocated storage, with customers at all times holding full unencumbered legal title to all their stored bullion. All BullionStar customer bullion products are handled under camera surveillance and this handling is meticulously documented. BullionStar is insured by insurance underwriter XL Insurance against all risks at full replacement value for all precious metals stored in the vault.

BullionStar employs no less than 5 levels of auditing to verify and confirm the existence of all bullion products under secure storage in its vault facilities. This includes a Live Audit Report which lists all customer owned bullion stored in the BullionStar vault, with which a customer can verify online his/her bullion in the vault by vault account number. BullionStar vault customers are also welcome to inspect their bullion via a personal customer audit on site at BullionStar's Singapore shop and showroom. BullionStar's vault auditing furthermore includes twice yearly physical auditing of all customer owned bullion by LBMA approved independent auditor Bureau Veritas.

Singapore's Retail Bullion Sector

Overall, BullionStar is a key player in the retail gold bullion sector in Singapore and has a growing presence. According to data from the World Gold Council (WGC), overall gold demand in Singapore in 2017 totalled 17.1 tonnes, slightly lower than overall gold demand of 18.1 tonnes in 2016. WGC figures also show that demand for gold bullion in Singapore in 2017 totalled 5 tonnes, down from 5.9 tonnes in 2016.

With BullionStar having sold approximately 2.3 tonnes of gold in 2016, this represents 46% of all gold bullion sold in Singapore, and 13.5% of all gold sold in Singapore over the same period.

During financial year 2017 (FY 2017), of BullionStar's total sales of SGD 186.2 million, 60.3% by value represented gold bar sales, the lion's share of which comprised 100 gram gold bars and 1 kg gold bars. By value, 12.6% represented gold coin sales, the majority of which were Gold Maples from the Royal Canadian Mint and Gold Kangaroos from the Perth Mint. Silver bar sales represented 21% of FY 2017 revenues, the majority of which were 1 kg silver bars, followed by 100 gram silver bars. Silver coins sales represented 4.6% of FY 2017 revenues, with Canadian Silver Maples being the top seller followed by Perth Mint Silver Kangaroo coins.

Conclusion

The retail bullion market in Singapore remains in robust shape despite the recent surprising closure announcement from Degussa. Clients of Degussa Singapore who have previously transacted in bullion products can rest assured that they can now access a full range of the world's foremost bullion bars and coins from BullionStar's shop and showroom in Singapore and through the BullionStar online transaction platform. Degussa storage customers who wish to retain precious metals storage facilities in Singapore can also have future piece of mind by considering the use of BullionStar's secure precious metals vaulting facilities in central Singapore.

2 Winners of the Silver Britannia Competition by BullionStar and The Royal Mint

In the month of August 2017, we launched a competition in collaboration with The Royal Mint. The competition invited customers of The Royal Mint and BullionStar to promote the Royal Mint Brand in Singapore through any medium! We received numerous top quality submissions and after much deliberation, we present to you the two winners of the competition, Ms. Joanne Chim and Mr. Daniel Yap!

Treasure for Life - By Joanne Chim

In an interview, Joanne mentioned that when she first saw the Queen's Beast silver coins from the Royal Mint, she felt a sense of intrigue due to the minute details that were very skilfully stamped onto each coin. Subsequently, as Joanne discovered the process behind the design and the value of the coins, she began to feel even more inspired by the creative designs and the story behind this series. The coins have enabled her to have an idea of the intrinsic value behind precious metals.

As a designer herself, Joanne is naturally fascinated with artwork and what made her fall in love with the Queen's Beasts coins were the level of detail and the effort put into designing each creature. Be it the Griffin, Lion or Dragon, the intricate details of each figurine translated into a deep sense of appreciation for the value that these coins bring.

Hence, when producing her video for the competition, Joanne wanted to convey the idea that The Royal Mint coins are just as valuable a gift as hand written letters, due to the intricate nature put into designing each coin, yet each holding a lasting significance allowing one to treasure for life. The calligraph in Joanne's video submission was a quote from Henry Hazlitt which says, "The great merit of gold is precisely that it is scarce; that its quantity is limited by nature; that it is costly to discover, to mine, and to process; and that it cannot be created by political fiat or caprice."

Check out Joanne's winning video submission below!

Snip Cali

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Mothers - By Daniel Yap

Daniel wanted to tell the story that inspired the sculptor, Philip Nathan, to create the Britannia design, which now celebrates it's 30th anniversary and is a true modern masterpiece.

It is a story often misunderstood. Many interpretations of the Britannia reflect ancient Greek mythology, but Philip Nathan hoped to create a more realistic and raw character inspired by Boudicca, commonly known as Boadicea. "I was moved by the fact that a lady beaten down would hit back with 100,000 tribesmen behind her—and win for awhile," Daniel said, "It's the sort of thing that can inspire generations. I especially appreciated the chance to convey this theme to a segment of the population whose struggles aren't usually seen as screenworthy—mothers."

Mothers

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Bullionstar carries a wide range of products in both Gold and Silver from The Royal Mint. Have a look at the Gold Britannia and the Queen's Beasts Series in Gold, as well as the Silver Britannia and the Queen's Beasts Series in Silver. Learn more about BullionStar's extensive range of Royal Mint Gold and Silver coins here.